NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)
Magnetic Particle Testing - Level I/II













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COURSE DESCRIPTION                                                                                 
 
METHOD:                                    Magnetic Particle
COURSE NAME:                          Magnetic Particle Testing
LEVEL:                                         I & II
DURATION (days)                        3
COST                                          $500.00

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COURSE OUTLINE                                                                                         

 

 

Level I – Magnetic Particle Testing  

 

1.0       Principles of Magnets and Magnetic Fields

1.1       Theory of magnetic fields

1.1.1    Earth’s magnetic field

1.1.2    Magnetic fields around magnetized materials

1.2       Theory of magnetism

1.2.1    Magnetic poles

1.2.2    Law of magnetism

1.2.3    Materials influenced by magnetic fields

1.2.3.1    Ferromagnetic

1.2.3.2    Paramagnetic

1.2.3    Magnetic characteristics of nonferrous materials

1.3       Terminology associated with magnetic particle testing

 

2.0       Characteristics of Magnetic Fields

2.1       Bar magnet

2.2       Ring magnet

 

3.0       Effect of Discontinuities of Materials

3.1       Surface cracks

3.2       Scratches

3.3       Subsurface defects

 

4.0       Magnetization by Means of Electric Current

4.1       Circular field

4.1.1    Field around a straight conductor

4.1.2    Right-hand rule

4.1.3    Field in parts through which current flows

4.1.3.1    Long, solid, cylindrical, regular parts

4.1.3.2    Irregularly shaped parts

4.1.3.3    Tubular parts

4.1.3.1    Parts containing machined holes, slots, etc.

4.1.4    Methods of inducing current flow in parts

4.1.4.1    Contact plates

4.1.4.2    Prods

4.1.5    Discontinuities commonly discovered by circular fields

4.2       Longitudinal field

4.2.1    Field produced by current flow in a coil

4.2.2    Field direction in a current-carrying coil

4.2.3    Field strength in a current-carrying coil

4.2.4    Discontinuities commonly discovered by longitudinal fields

4.2.5    Advantages of longitudinal magnetization

4.2.6    Disadvantages of longitudinal magnetization

 

5.0       Selecting the Proper Method of Magnetization

5.1       Alloy, shape and condition of part

5.2       Type of magnetizing current

5.3       Direction of magnetic field

5.4       Sequence of operations

5.5       Value of flux density

 

6.0       Inspection Materials

6.1       Wet particles

6.2       Dry particles

 

7.0       Principles of Demagnetization

7.1       Residual magnetism

7.2       Reasons for requiring demagnetization

7.3       Longitudinal and circular residual fields

7.4       Basic principles of demagnetization

7.5.      Retentivity and coercive force

7.6       Methods of demagnetization

 

8.0       Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment

8.1       Equipment selection considerations

8.1.1    Type of magnetizing current

8.1.2    Location and nature of test

8.1.3    Test materials used

8.1.4    Purpose of test

8.1.5    Area inspected

8.2       Manual inspection equipment

8.3       Medium- and heavy-duty equipment

8.4       Stationary equipment

8.5       Mechanized inspection equipment

8.5.1    Semiautomatic inspection equipment

8.5.2    Single-purpose semiautomatic equipment

8.5.3    Multipurpose semiautomatic equipment

8.5.4    Fully automatic equipment

 

9.0       Types of Discontinuities Detected by Magnetic Particle Testing

9.1       Inclusions

9.2       Blowholes

9.3       Porosity

9.4       Flakes

9.5       Cracks

9.6       Pipes

9.7       Laminations

9.8       Laps

9.9       Forging bursts

9.10     Voids

 

10.0     Magnetic Particle Test Indications and Interpretations

10.1     Indications of nonmetallic inclusions

10.2     Indications of surface seams

10.3     Indications of cracks

10.4     Indications of laminations

10.5     Indications of laps

10.6     Indications of bursts and flakes

10.7     Indications of porosity

10.8     Nonrelevant indications

 

Total hours of instruction for this course:  12 hours

 

 

Level II – Magnetic Particle Testing

 

1.0        Principles

1.1        Theory

1.1.1     Flux patterns

1.1.2     Frequency and voltage factors

1.1.3     Current calculations

1.1.4     Surface flux strength

1.1.5     Subsurface effects

1.2        Magnets and magnetism

1.2.1     Distance factors versus strength of flux

1.2.2     Internal and external flux patterns

1.2.3     Phenomenon action at the discontinuity

1.2.4     Heat effects on magnetism

1.2.5     Material hardness versus magnetic retention

 

2.0        Flux Fields

2.1        Direct current

2.1.1     Depth of penetration factors

2.1.2     Source of current

2.2        Direct pulsating current

2.2.1     Similarity to direct current

2.2.2     Advantages

2.2.3     Typical fields

2.3        Alternating current

2.3.1     Cyclic effects

2.3.2     Surface strength characteristics

2.3.3     Safety precautions

2.3.4     Voltage and current factors

2.3.5     Source of current

 

3.0        Effects of Discontinuities on Materials

3.1        Design factors

3.1.1     Mechanical properties

3.1.2     Part use

3.2        Relationship to load-carrying ability

 

4.0        Magnetization by Means of Electric Current

4.1        Circular techniques

4.1.1     Current calculations

4.1.2     Depth-factor considerations

4.1.3     Precautions B safety and overheating

4.1.4     Contact prods and yokes

4.1.4.1     Requirements for prods and yokes

4.1.4.2    Current-carrying capabilities

4.1.5     Discontinuities commonly detected

4.2        Longitudinal technique

4.2.1     Principles of induced flux fields

4.2.2     Geometry of part to be inspected

4.2.3     Shapes and sizes of coils

4.2.4     Use of coils and cables

4.2.4.1    Strength of field

4.2.4.2    Current directional flow versus flux field

4.2.4.3    Shapes, sizes and current capacities

4.2.5     Current calculations

4.2.5.1    Formulas

4.2.5.2    Types of current required

4.2.5.3    Current demand

4.2.6     Discontinuities commonly detected

 

5.0        Selecting the Proper Method of Magnetization

5.1        Alloy, shape and condition of part

5.2        Type of magnetizing current

5.3        Direction of magnetic field

5.4        Sequence of operations

5.5        Value of flux density

 

6.0        Demagnetization Procedures

6.1        Need for demagnetization of parts

6.2        Current, frequency and field orientation

6.3        Heat factors and precautions

6.4        Need for collapsing flux fields

 

7.0        Equipment

7.1        Portable type

7.1.1     Reason for portable equipment

7.1.2     Capabilities of portable equipment

7.1.3     Similarity to stationary equipment

7.2        Stationary type

7.2.1     Capability of handling large and heavy parts

7.2.2     Flexibility in use

7.2.3     Need for stationary equipment

7.2.4     Use of accessories and attachments

7.3        Automatic type

7.3.1     Requirements for automation

7.3.2     Sequential operations

7.3.3     Control and operation factors

7.3.4     Alarm and rejection mechanisms

7.4        Liquids and powders

7.4.1     Liquid requirements as a particle vehicle

7.4.2     Safety precautions

7.4.3     Temperature needs

7.4.4     Powder and paste contents

7.4.5     Mixing procedures

7.4.6     Need for accurate proportions

7.5        Black light type

7.5.1     Black light and fluorescence

7.5.2     Visible light and black light comparisons

7.5.3     Requirements in the testing cycle

7.5.4     Techniques in use

7.6        Light-sensitive instruments

7.6.1     Need for instrumentation

7.6.2     Light characteristics

 

8.0        Types of Discontinuities

8.1        In castings

8.2        In ingots

8.3        In wrought sections and parts

8.4        In welds

 

9.0        Evaluation Techniques

9.1        Use of standards

9.1.1     Need for standards and references

9.1.2     Comparison of known with unknown

9.1.3     Specifications and certifications

9.1.4     Comparison techniques

9.2        Defect appraisal

9.2.1     History of part

9.2.2     Manufacturing process

9.2.3     Possible causes of defect

9.2.4     Use of part

9.2.5     Acceptance and rejection criteria

9.2.6     Use of tolerances

 

10.0      Quality Control of Equipment and Processes

10.1      Malfunctioning of equipment

10.2      Proper magnetic particles and bath liquid

10.3      Bath concentration

10.3.1   Settling test

10.3.2   Other bath-strength tests

10.4      Tests for black light intensity

 

Total hours of instruction for this course:  8 hours

 
















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