NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)
Radiographic Testing - Level II













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COURSE DESCRIPTION                                                                                 
 
METHOD:                                   Radiographic Testing
COURSE NAME:                         Radiographic Technique, Film Quality,
                                                  Evaluation and Interpretation 
LEVEL:                                       II
DURATION (days)                       5
COST                                         $1000.00

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COURSE OUTLINE                                                                                         

 

 

Radiographic Testing - Level II

 

Film Quality and Manufacturing Processes Course

 1.0       Review of Basic Radiographic Principles

1.1        Interaction of radiation with matter

1.2        Math review

1.3        Exposure calculations

1.4        Geometric exposure principles

1.5        Radiographic-image quality parameters

 

2.0        Darkroom Facilities, Techniques and Processing

2.1        Facilities and equipment

2.1.1     Automatic film processor versus manual processing

2.1.2     Safe lights

2.1.3     Viewer lights

2.1.4     Loading bench

2.1.5     Miscellaneous equipment

2.2        Film loading

2.2.1     General rules for handling unprocessed film

2.2.2     Types of film packaging

2.2.3     Cassette loading techniques for sheet and roll

2.3        Protection of radiographic film in storage

2.4        Processing of film — manual

2.4.1     Developer and replenishment

2.4.2     Stop bath

2.4.3     Fixer and replenishment

2.4.4     Washing

2.4.5     Prevention of water spots

2.4.6     Drying

2.5        Automatic film processing

2.6        Film filing and storage

2.6.1     Retention-life measurements

2.6.2     Long-term storage

2.6.3     Filing and separation techniques

2.7        Unsatisfactory radiographs — causes and cures

2.7.1     High film density

2.7.2     Insufficient film density

2.7.3     High contrast

2.7.4     Low contrast

2.7.5     Poor definition

2.7.6     Fog

2.7.7     Light leaks

2.7.8     Artifacts

2.8        Film density

2.8.1     Step-wedge comparison film

2.8.2     Densitometers

 

3.0        Indications, Discontinuities and Defects

3.1        Indications

3.2        Discontinuities

3.2.1     Inherent

3.2.2     Processing

3.2.3     Service

3.3        Defects

 

4.0        Manufacturing Processes and Associated Discontinuities

4.1        Casting processes and associated discontinuities

4.1.1     Ingots, blooms and billets

4.1.2     Sand casting

4.1.3     Centrifugal casting

4.1.4     Investment casting

4.2        Wrought processes and associated discontinuities

4.2.1     Forgings

4.2.2     Rolled products

4.2.3     Extruded products

4.3        Welding processes and associated discontinuities

4.3.1     Submerged arc welding (SAW)

4.3.2     Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

4.3.3     Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

4.3.4     Flux corded arc welding (FCAW)

4.3.5     Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

4.3.6     Resistance welding

4.3.7     Special welding processes  - electron beam, electroslag, electrogas, etc.

 

5.0        Radiological Safety Principles Review

5.1        Controlling personnel exposure

5.2        Time, distance, shielding concepts

5.3        ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept

5.4        Radiation-detection equipment

5.5        Exposure-device operating characteristics

 

Total hours of instruction for this course:  20 hours

 

 

Radiographic Evaluation and Interpretation Course

1.0        Radiographic Viewing

1.1        Film-illuminator requirements

1.2        Background lighting

1.3        Multiple-composite viewing

1.4        Penetrameter placement

1.5        Personnel dark adaptation and visual acuity

1.6        Film identification

1.7        Location markers

1.8        Film-density measurement

1.9        Film artifacts

 

2.0        Application Techniques

2.1        Multiple-film techniques

2.1.1     Thickness variation parameters

2.1.2     Film speed

2.1.3     Film latitude

2.2        Enlargement and projection

2.3        Geometrical relationships

2.3.1     Geometrical unsharpness

2.3.2     Penetrameter sensitivity

2.3.3     Source-to-film distance

2.3.4     Focal-spot size

2.4        Triangulation methods for discontinuity location

2.5        Localized magnification

2.6        Film handling techniques

 

3.0        Evaluation of Castings

3.1        Casting method review

3.2        Casting discontinuities

3.3        Origin and typical orientation of discontinuities

3.4        Radiographic appearance

3.5        Casting codes/standards — applicable acceptance criteria

3.6        Reference radiographs

 

4.0        Evaluation of Weldments

4.1        Welding method review

4.2        Welding discontinuities

4.3        Origin and typical orientation of discontinuities

4.4        Radiographic appearance

4.5        Welding codes/standards — applicable acceptance criteria

4.6        Reference radiographs or pictograms

 

5.0        Standards, Codes and Procedures for Radiography

5.1        ASTM E94, E142

5.2        Acceptable radiographic techniques and setups

5.3        Applicable employer procedures

5.4        Procedure for radiograph parameter verification

5.5        Radiographic reports

 

Total hours of instruction for this course:  20 hours

 
















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